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Bibliography Oscola Style Example In Literature

Print copies of journal articles:

Include the page extent of the whole article when writing your full citation, not just the pages you have referred to.

Full: O’Gorman, E. (1999). Detective fiction and historical narrative. Greece and Rome. 46, 19-26.

Brief: O’Gorman, 1999

If there are more than three authors, for the brief citation you can just state the first author, followed by et al.

Full: Christie, D., Cassidy, C., Skinner, D. Coutts, N., Sinclair, C. Rimpilainen, S., and Wilson, A. (2007). Building collaborative communities of enquiry in educational research. Educational Research and Evaluation, 13 (3), 263-278.

Brief: Christie et al., 2007

Print journals accessed online:

If you access a journal article online (e.g. through JSTOR), but it is also available in print, use the same format for citation as above.

Online journals:

If the journal is ONLY available online, you should include the URL. Note that online-only journal articles may not have page numbers:

Full: Farrell, L.G. (2013). Challenging assumptions about IT skills in higher education. Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 6. Available at http://www.aldinhe.ac.uk/ojs/index.php?journal=jldhe&page=article&op=view&path[]=173&path[]=138.

Citing Secondary Sources

Books, journal articles and other secondary sources

Here are some examples of how to cite a book and journal article:


As a rough guide*, a citation for a book should take the form below.

author, | title | (additional information, | edition, | publisher | year)

e.g. Timothy Endicott, Administrative Law (3rd edn, OUP 2015)

If you need to pinpoint a particular page of the book, you can do this by adding the page number onto the end of the citation:

e.g. Andrew Burrows, Remedies for Torts and Breach of Contract (3rd edn, OUP 2004) 317

*Note:there will be situations where it is more difficult to create a citation (e.g. books with more than 3 authors; books with no authors; edited or translated books; encyclopedias; looseleafs, etc.)  Luckily, there is plenty of advice on these topics at pages 33 to 37 of the OSCOLA guide.


If a journal article is available in print, you can cite it as follows:

author, | ‘title’ | [year] | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article


author, | ‘title’ | (year) | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article

e.g. Alison L Young, ‘In Defence of Due Deference’ (2009) 72 MLR 554

If you are citing a journal article which is published ONLY electronically, a different format is used:

author, | ‘title’ | [year] OR (year) | volume/issue | journal name or abbreviation | <web address> | date accessed

But most articles you will be citing will be available in print, so it is only rarely that you would need to use the online journal citation format.

An explanation about brackets: use square brackets for the year of publication if it identifies the volume. Use round brackets if there is a separate volume number.  In the example above, the article is from the Modern Law Review which has separate volume numbers, so round brackets have been used.

Other secondary sources: the OSCOLA guide provides examples for citing the the following materials: Hansard and parliamentary reports, Command papers, Law Commission reports, European Commission documents, conference papers, theses, websites and blogs, newspaper articles, interviews and personal communications (see pages 33-43).  If what you want to cite is not contained in the preceding list, don't worry! The OSCOLA guide sets out some general principles you can follow for secondary sources at page 39.

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